1. The main body of the New Testament scripture text in this commentary is based in part on the Koine Greek Text of Stephens 1550, as found in the Interlinear Greek-English New Testament by George Ricker Berry, along with the original Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance, 1894 compared diligently with the work of respected commentators and scholars. New Testament portions of Tyndale’s work are used as well. Tyndale based his work on the Koine Greek of the Received Text, Third Edition.
2. Where the text of the King James Version is followed, archaic language is updated in most cases**, but The AV (Old & New Testaments) is followed unchanged where the language and sense of the translation is clear to the modern reader.
3. Where a Hebrew or Greek word has no good English equivalent—or the traditional translation is debated—the original word may be left untranslated. In most cases, the Strong’s Greek [G] or Hebrew [H] reference number will be notated beside it.
4. Where the Old Testament is quoted in the New Testament, some of the Hebrew words may be used and left untranslated
5. In New Testament quotes of Old Testament that include the word “Lord” in referring to Jehovah/Yahweh [YHWH], the Tetragrammaton [YHWH] will be used
6. Proper names and the names of God are often left untranslated
7. The names and titles of God are in bold print
8. The words of Jesus are in bold print
9. Scripture cross-references and short alternative renderings are noted in line with the text
10. As both the Hebrew and the Greek texts were originally written without punctuation, there is little punctuation used in the main body of the scripture-commentary text
11. Brackets [ ] indicate translator supplement, alternate rendering, or short commentary
12. Longer commentary is in footnotes
** Historically loved, poetic and extraordinarily beautiful passages of the King James Version, such as portions of the Psalms and Beatitudes, etc., are left largely unchanged except for where updating archaic language would not interrupt the poetic flow.
Some Untranslated and uncommon words in the : (Partial list only)
'âdâm H120 Pronounced “audawm” is the name God gave to both the first man and the first woman—the entire human race. In the Hebrew Bible, mixed crowds (composed of both females and males) are also referred to as 'âdâm. This Hebrew word, does not mean “man” and is not androcentric (male centered) as are most English and Greek words used to describe the entire human population, words such as: man (when used to describe all people), mankind, human race, anthropos (when used to describe all people), etc..
In this commentary, the phonetic spelling of the Hebrew word 'âdâm (audawm) is used instead of man, mankind, or human whenever the word refers to mixed crowds of both sexes or to the human race in general.
Adelphos G80 Sibling (born of the same mother or father); Old Testament: generally a natural sibling/brother. The word takes on a gender neutral meaning in the New Testament and can refer to natural brothers—who are born of the same mother but was also used of a group of Jesus siblings which included his sisters. In the main, New Testament references are to spiritual siblings, whether sisters or brothers, referring to anyone who is Born Again into the Body of Christ, fellow Christians in general, whether female or male.
Adown H113 Lords
Aggelos G32 pronounced angelos: messenger, translated “angel” 179 times in the AV
Aion G165 [noun] an Age; a period of time. The Greek word aion is thought to be from the same root as another Greek word aei G104 which is an adverb whose root is from an obsolete primary noun meaning: continued duration; perpetual; invariably
Amen G281 When used at the beginning of a discourse, it means truly or assuredly; When used at the end of a discourse or prayer, it means so be it, let it be so: The word "amen" is a most remarkable word. It was transliterated directly from the Hebrew into the Greek of the New Testament, then into Latin and into English and many other languages, so that it is practically a universal word. It has been called the best known word in human speech. The word is directly related — in fact, almost identical — to the Hebrew word for "believe" (amam), or faithful. Thus, it came to mean "sure" or "truly", an expression of absolute trust and confidence. — HMM
Aner G435 Male, husband, all people, a group of people composed of both females and males (which indicates that G435 could be translated as female unless the context demands otherwise)
Anthropos G444 A human being; The human race in general; Mixed crowds of both men and women; angels who are sometimes mistaken for men; people in general, whether female or male. In instances where this is the case, rather than using a gender specific or androcentric term, the HHBC commentary uses the untranslated Greek word, anthropos, which is frequently used in the Received Text for mixed groups of women and men and of the human race as a whole. Most languages are androcentric (male centered) including the Hebrew and Greek our English scriptures were translated from. Most English translations are even more so, and in many cases supplement the text with the words, man or men where they do not appear. For that reason, where the Greek word, anthropos, occurs, the HHBC often leaves it untranslated, leaving it to the context and the reader to decide if the text is alluding specifically to males, or to a mixed crowd/group composed of both females and males, or of the entire human race in general.
Audawm (The phonetic spelling and pronunciation of the Hebrew H120-’âdâm. Biblical usage of H120 references groups of both females and males, of the human race in general, as well as the name of the first male. In both Old and New Testament of the HHBC commentary, the phonetic spelling of H120-'‘âdâm (pronounced “audawm”) will be used in place of androcentric translation such as man, mankind, or human race when the text calls for it. The same word “H120-'‘âdâm” will be used only when the text specifically references the first male.
Aule G833 Hall, Court, Palace [home/habitation]
Autos G846 a pronoun that could be translated any number of ways: she, he, it, himself, herself, the same, they, their, etc.. In many translations, it is often translated as he or man without textual support. Other translations. In Philippians 4:3 (AV) it was translated as “those women.”
ba`al H-1167 Lord
Beelzeboul G954 A name of Satan
Chayil H2428 Valor; Strength; Might; [The strength and power of] Wealth; [The strength and power of] Riches. Chayil is mis-translated “virtuous” only three times in the Hebrew text; each of these mistranslations is deliberate (about women) due to misogyny. There is no textual reason to translate the Hebrew word, Chayil, as virtuous as it has never had any connotation of virtue.
Christos G5547 pronounced kree-stos: Christ; Anointed One; Messiah
Complementarian: The teaching that women were originally created subordinate to men and are to remain so throughout their lives on earth and all eternity as well.
Diakonia G1248 service; ministry
Eklektos G… Picked out, chosen
Diamonions G1140 Evil Spirits
Ego Emi H H : I AM
Ekeinos G1565 The one there; That one; That thing or time; Used of persons, things, times somewhat remote from the speaker (Thayer)
Ekklesia G1577 Called out ones; A gathering of citizens called out from their homes into some public place or an assembly; Those who anywhere, constitute such a company and are united into one body
Elohiym Gods, i.e., The Godhead. All references to “God” in Genesis chapter one are Strong’s Hebrew reference 430, “Elohiym”. The word refers to more than two (Martin/Ankerberg 1985). There is a word in Hebrew that refers to more than one but not more than two, but Elohiym is not that word. The word “Elohiym, is a reference to the Godhead. Genesis 1:1 specifically tells us that it is the LORD God Yahweh Elohiym—the Godhead—who created all things (Isaiah 44:24, 45:18, John 1:3,10). This is the first Biblical evidence that Jesus is Jehovah, and not simply a subordinate that God created then “used” to create all “other” things. Per Philippians 2:10-11, which is a New Testament quote of Jehovah [who is speaking in Isaiah 45:23] Jesus is the LORD GOD—Yahweh Elohiym of Genesis1-3. The fullness (entirety) of the Godhead resides in Jesus in physical form (Colossians 2:9). We serve a God who is one. The Holy of Holies [in the Hebrew Bible] literally means the Holy place of the Holy Ones—i.e., the Godhead (Cooke). Do we understand how God can be three yet be one? No, we do not. It is as impossible for man to analyze and pry apart the Godhead as it would be to attempt to separate the soul and spirit; only God has sufficient understanding and power to accomplish such a thing in His triune personage and yet remain one. It is sin to theologically transform the Triune Godhead into a hierarchical, idolatrous, triad. Just so, it is sin to theologically turn the holy, one flesh, relationship of marriage into a hierarchical duo with a god-man at the helm. Man-made hierarchies accomplish nothing less than the conversion of triune into triad and one flesh into duo.
Elowahh H433 God; The singular of Elohiym (Gods)
Exodus G1841 Departure
Ezer H5828 Help; Succour; Used of God himself in Psalm 33:20
Genea G1074 Geneology; fathered; birth; nativity; that which has been begotten; whole multitude of people living at the same time—a generation; a presumed derivative of G1085 genos kindred; offspring; descent;
Glossa G1100 Tongue; An organ of speech; Angelic languages; Earthly languages
Gyne G1135 Woman, Wife, M’âdâm
Hades G86 The nether world; the realm of the dead; the lower regions
Harpazo G726 Sieze; catch; snatch; take by force; pull
Ho G3588 definite article corresponding to: the; of; this; that. Other usages include: etc.; who; which
Iesous Pronounced Ee-A-Soos G2424 translated Jesus: Yeshua is the Hebrew name, and its English spelling is “Joshua.” Iesous is the Greek transliteration of the Hebrew name, and its English spelling is “Jesus.” Thus, the names “Joshua” and “Jesus” are essentially the same; both are English pronunciations of the Hebrew and Greek names for our Lord. For examples of how the two names are interchangeable, see Acts 7:45 and Hebrews 4:8 in the KJV. In both cases, the word Iesous refers to the Old Testament character Joshua. Because of disparities in English translation of the word, Iesous will remain untranslated throughout the main body of scripture this commentary. https://gotquestions.org/Yeshua-Jesus.html
'ishshah Hebrew for woman/wife, but not exclusively so. The word is also used for mixed crowds of both females and males, and therefore, can also be used as gender neutral, as context allows, just as the words ‘âdâm and iysh are seen in gender neutral biblical usage. Context must determine translation.
'iysh H376 Hebrew for man/husband/mixed crowds of both women and men/homosapiens in general, even translated as “you” in Proverbs 3:31 (KJV). The word, Iysh, has no legitimate claim as a word exclusive to males. Context must determine translation.
Keriythuwth H3748 Bill of divorce
Kosmos G2889 The earth, the world/universe, the space time continuum, the system of this world/arranged order of things, the people who inhabit the earth
Logion G3051 Spoken of the words and utterances of God
Logos G3056 Word (said, thought, computation, motive)
Messias G3323 pronounced Me-say-us or Me-sy-us: Messiah; Christ; Savior
Meshuwbah H4878 (from H7725 shuwb) Turning away
Monogenes G3439 One of a kind; Only offspring; God has many children—but all adopted or created. Jesus is neither adopted nor created. He is God’s only, for lack of a better word, natural (or genetic) child—begotten.
Nephesh H5315 noun Life Soul
Neged H5048 Opposite; Over against; Equal and opposite Counterpart
Panoplia G3833 complete set of armor
Parakletos G3875 Summoned; Called to one’s side; Called to one’s aid; One who pleads another’s cause before a Judge; Advocate; A pleader; Counsel for defense; Legal assistant; In the widest sense a helper, succorer, aider, assistant (Thayer)
Pneuma G4151 (neuter noun) Pronounced Nu-maa: Spirit
Porneia G4202 (Feminine noun) Sexual sin
Porne G4204 (Feminine noun) Those engaging in sexual sin
Pornos G4205 (Masculine noun) Those engaging in sexual sin (According to Strong’s, all of the Greek “porn” words descend from the word piprasko G4097 which means to sell; of price, one into slavery; to give one’s self up wholly into the control of another. The fact that piprasko is taken from a root word peran G4008, which means beyond, the other side, farther side (not God’s side), all scripture uses of the porn words denote utterly demonic, enslaving behavior)
Porneuo G4203 (Verb) engaging in sexual sin
Rhabbi G4461 A great one, an honorable sir; Rabbi, an honorable title used by the Jews to address their teachers; John the Baptist is addressed by this title in John 3:26; Jesus is addressed by this title multiple times
Ruwach H7307 (Feminine Noun) The Holy Spirit is not an “it.” Neither is the Holy Spirit a “He.” The Holy Spirit is God. In the Hebrew, the Holy Spirit is called Ruwach. The Hebrew word, Ruwach, is a feminine noun. The Holy Spirit is portrayed as a mother hen in Genesis 1:2. Jesus confirmed this in Matthew 23:37 and Luke 13:34. The scriptures say that, God is not a man Numbers 23:19. Neither is he a woman. But he portrays himself as both mother and father. Jesus himself is the Father of Eternity. The angel Gabriel, called the Holy Spirit the father of the Christ child Luke 1:35. We cannot divide God. We can only take him at his Word. The Holy Spirit is God. In the Hebrew**, the Holy Spirit is feminine. In the Greek, the word used for Holy Spirit is a neuter noun, which translators choose to render as “it” or “he.” However, this commentator maintains that “it” is not an option, and because of the Hebrew testimony (and the neutrality of the Greek), the Holy Spirit is accurately addressed as “She.”
**English-Translation-Theology is always a danger, and presents difficulties—to readers and translators alike (that other languages do not), as English is such a diverse language, with so many options (more words than any other language) for translators to choose from. For example, the Hebrew language has a limited vocabulary (only about 3000 words) as compared with the koine Greek (everyday language spoken by Jesus and his contemporaries). So, we must appreciate that most every Hebrew word has a variety of applications (some a very wide variety) and must be translated according to context. Other applications of the word, ruwach, include: spirit; wind; breath; mind; vain; air; anger; cool; courage.
James Strong lists 5,624 koine Greek words in his original concordance. This would not represent every koine Greek word in the koine Greek vocabulary—only those which were used in the New Testament of the Received Text. By comparison, the English language has about 200,000 commonly used words, not counting scientific words, which approximate another 200,000.
Satanas G4567 Satan
Shalach H7971 The putting away (sending away or casting off). Shalach (casting off) without a bill of keriythuwthH3748 (bill of divorce) is not the same as a divorce
Shamayim: Strong’s Hebrew reference 8064 Heaven is, “SHAMEH.” The word is used exclusively for all references to heaven from Genesis through Psalm 78:8. In these passages, context alone must determine which “heaven” the verse is referring to, whether the sky, beyond the sky (space), or the third Heaven Paul was caught up to.
Sheowl: Underworld; World of the dead
Shuwb H7725 Turn around; Return
Theos G2316 Deity; god; The reason the word, Theos, is largely left untranslated in this commentary, is to put to rest erroneous teaching that the word must be prefaced by the definite article “ho” (meaning “the” or “of”) in order to be translated as referring to Yahweh (Jehovah). In fact, most New Testament scripture references to Theos are not introduced using the definite article, “ho,” but even in those cases, it is clear when Almighty is or is not being referenced—especially in the case of John 1:1, where John, a Jew who would never commit blasphemy by calling anyone who was not YHWH “A” god. When John called Jesus “God,” he was specifically stating that Jesus is YHWH [Yahweh].
Ton Theon The God; of God as context requires
Ton G5120 The; of
Towrah H8451 Law of Moses; Mosaic Law; Pentateuch
YHWH H3068 (without vowels—Hebrew has no vowels) known as the Tetragrammaton) Yahweh; Sometimes translated as Jehovah; The true name of the name of the Almighty, known to scholars as the Tetragrammaton, the correct pronunciation is, Yahveh.” This pronunciation has never been lost according to Jewish scholar, Kaufmann Kohler. In the HHBC, any New Testament citing of the Hebrew Tetragrammaton from an Old Covenant source will be treated as Hebrew. The letters YHWH will be used in the verse in place of LORD.
Yowm H3117 Strong’s: (from an unused root meaning to be hot [as the warm hours]) Day; Time; Year; Lifetime; Time Period; Age… Gesenius: From the time when; Always; At that/this Time; Now; In all time